Saturday, March 14, 2020
SSA Taking Benefits Away from Young Adults with Serious Illnesses SSA Targeting Young Adults with Illnesses, Stopping Benefits to Save Money Could you imagine having a serious, chronic illness and relying on Social Security Disability benefits for your necessary medical treatments, only to have your benefits abruptly stopped, when your condition is getting worse?This is what unfortunately happened to a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis, an incurable disease that causes serious lung damage. She suddenly had her Social Security Disability benefits stripped away, because the office deemed that her health was improving.The statement baffled Megan Willis and her mother, as they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand who would make such a conclusion, as MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s condition worsened in the last year.She depended on the monthly benefits to afford more than $100,000 a year in costly medical treatments to stay alive.Chronic Disease Causes Life-Threatening Infections Cystic Fibrosis causes mucus to line the lungs, which blocks the airways and leads to serious and persistent lung diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Mucu s also lines the pancreas, making it difficult to properly digest food and absorb necessary nutrients. The mucus buildup can also cause cirrhosis of the liver, and cause infertility due to buildup on the reproductive tract.Cystic Fibrosis can eventually lead to respiratory failure, and the average life expectancy is only 40 years old. This, however, is higher than the grim outlook for Cystic Fibrosis six decades ago, when children who were diagnosed did not survive past their teen years.Given the severity of the illness, on a Ã¢â¬Å"good day,Ã¢â¬ Megan spends up to six hours undergoing necessary breathing treatments, and taking medications.Lawyer Helps SSA Reconsider, Wins Back SSD Benefits at Critical Time The sudden loss of the benefits was devastating, as MeganÃ¢â¬â¢s family cannot afford private insurance to pay for her extensive medical bills.Megan contacted Attorney Beth Sufian, and with her help, the SSA reconsidered her case, and fortunately, coverage was reinstated eig ht months after it had been taken away.Timing was critical, as Megan was hospitalized for her illness the same month benefits were reinstated.However, these benefits should not have been removed in the first place. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong that Megan had to wait up to eight months for the benefits she deserves. What would have happened if she was hospitalized before benefits kicked back in?With Backlog, SSA Conducting Unpresented Number of Reviews to Stop People from Receiving BenefitsThe article explained that the SSA conducts periodic reviews, called Continuing Disability Reviews, to ensure that those receiving benefits are still eligible for disability.According to the SSA website, these reviews are typically conducted once every three to seven years, depending on the severity of the illness. If a condition is expected to improve, reviews could be conducted earlier than three years.However, the frequency of these reviews is increasing, with up to nearly one million reviews in the past y ear. Attorney Sufian believes this is done in an attempt to target young adults with serious illnesses, in order to save the organization money by ending necessary benefits.This practice is troubling, as halting benefits for those in need is not ethical. Beneficiaries like Megan have serious medical conditions, and rely on the benefits they receive for their treatments to live.We Can HelpIf you are disabled and unable to work, callÃ Disability Attorneys of MichiganÃ for a free confidential consultation. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll let you know if we can help you get a monthly check and help you determine if any money or assets you receive could impact your eligibility for disability benefits.Disability Attorneys of MichiganÃ works hard every day helping the disabled of Michigan seek theÃ Social Security DisabilityÃ benefitsÃ they need. If you are unable to work due to a physical, mental or cognitive impairment, callÃ Disability Attorneys of MichiganÃ now for a free consultation atÃ 800-949- 2900.Let MichiganÃ¢â¬â¢s experienced disability law firm help you get the benefits you deserve.Disability Attorneys of Michigan, Compassionate Excellence. Social Security Disability, Social Security Disability Benefits, Social Security Disability Benefits Attorney, Social Security Disability Lawyer
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Materiality in Auditing - Essay Example Materiality is more of a limit point than a main qualitative feature that the information must have so as to be significant. It shows the need of omission or presentation of the accountancy information that defines the decision making of the users of that information. The materiality that is adopted should represent the value in the report with which it is being determined. It should indicate whether the miss-statements and omissions in the accounts, show whether the accounts offer a true, complete, accurate and fair view of the financial position and performance of an entity. Consequently, materiality represents the degree of error under which the understanding and interpretation of the financial statements will not be greatly affected. On the other hand, it represents the degree of error that is acceptable in order to make a decision on whether the accounts are true or false (Maria and Franca 2012, p.268). According to Maria and Franca 2012, p.268, the major users of the financial audit reports are the shareholders. The audit report gives a guidance to the shareholders on how they will go about their business and on coming up with strategic decisions. The financial auditor assesses whether the true image of financial statements is observed. The assessment by auditors is necessary so as to ensure that the decisions of the shareholders are not influenced. To determine materiality the financial auditor is supposed to determine the user of the financial information; establish how the information and the process of making decisions are connected. He is also supposed to identify what decisions the user will take on the grounds of the audited financial statements. The financial auditor should make important comments regarding the scope of the financial audit that show the materiality. His liability is fixed to the important information established by a materiality determined by the financial auditor on the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Code switching project - Essay Example 3). In this view, the determination of the social motivations for a language alternation becomes important. This paper looks at the social motivations for code switching I terms of the various applications in social, discourse and identity expression situations. This follows an interview analysis that seeks to determine the patterns for code switching, as well as the attitudes evident from such changes. According to Buchholtz and Hall (2005), socio-cultural linguistics arises as an important subject that looks at the broad interdisciplinary area involving the integration of culture, society and language (Nilep 2006, p. 3). The utilization of code switching arises as a key determinant of bilingual and multilingual speakers. The availability of language resources including the knowledge of two or more languages enables different individuals to depict instances of language alternations. Code switching refers to the application of two or more languages between various speakers during a given speech or conversation (Lowi 2005, p. 1). In this case, the concept stands to be essential in such practices involving bilingual or multilingual speakers. This translates to the utilization of code switching as a means for conversation, and as an approach towards the establishment, maintenance and description of existing boundaries due to ethnicity (Fong 2011, p. 23). Additionally, the idea arises as an important tool for symbolizing relevant features of background in speakers. This provides multilingual speakers with an opportunity of expressing their own identities, thus, becoming an effective social process (Lowi 2005, p. 1). In providing for a social context, code switching allows individuals to explore their identities and ethnic backgrounds. This arises due to the various communicative functions depicted with the utilization of code switching (Shin 2010, p.94). The use of code switching becomes essential in ensuring that communication between two or more
Thursday, January 30, 2020
President Andrew Jackson Essay Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson, Andrew, the seventh President of the United States. His election in 1828 marked the end of the aristocratic tradition in the Presidency that had prevailed since the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning. Jackson, a self- made man, frontiersman, and military hero, was the first President from west of the Appalachians. He was identified with a new kind of democracya democracy embracing the entire population rather than only those who were wealthy or owned property. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson was neither an original nor a profound thinker, and did not always follow or understand the principles of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jacksonian democracyÃ¢â¬ that bears his name. However, he did know how to interpret the aspirations and viewpoints of the common people who were clamoring for a voice in government. Jackson was skilled and astute politician, who molded a faction, composed mostly of Southerners and Westerners into the Democratic Party.Ã Although politically conservative and a believer in statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, he expanded the powers of the Presidency and was fervently committed to the preservation of the Union. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson had a domineering personality. He was proud, ambitious, and aggressive. Throughout his life, his temper frequently caused him to act hastily or injudiciously, and he was often swayed by personal prejudices. However, his fearlessness, honesty, and loyalty endeared him to wide sections of the populace. His influence was felt well beyond his two terms, and the period from his election to that of Abraham Lincoln is often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Age of JacksonÃ¢â¬ . Discussions Early Life Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson was born March 15, 1767, in a backwoods settlement called Waxhaw on the border between North Carolina and South Carolina. Jackson said South Carolina was his birth place, but there has been much controversy on the subject. His father, mother, and two brothers had arrived there in 1765 from Northern Ireland. His parents had been linen drapers. His father, for whom he was named, died in an accident shortly before Andrew was born. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson had attended school for a while before British troops began operating in the Carolinas during the Revolutionary War. Though only 13, Jackson joined a local militia company along with his brother Robert in 1780. Their older brother Hugh had already been killed in the war. After a skirmish with the British in 1781, Jackson and his brother were captured. When a British officer ordered Andrew to polish his boots, he refused and demanded to be treated as a prisoner of war. The angry officer slashed Jackson with his saber, leaving him scarred for life Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The brothers were sent to a military prison, where they contracted smallpox. Their mother won their release. But Robert died on the way home. Not long after, Mrs. Jackson died while nursing two of AndrewÃ¢â¬â¢s cousins, who were soldiers imprisoned by the British. Andrew was left alone at the age of 14. Ã¢â¬Å"Old HickoryÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson lived at the Hermitage managing his business holdings until the outbreak of the War of 1812, when he volunteered his services and was commissioned a major general of U.S Volunteers. In 1813 Creek Indians massacred the inhabitants of Fort Mims in what is now Alabama. In 1814, Jackson led his troops against the Creeks, routing them at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His endurance in the field won Jackson the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"Old Hickory,Ã¢â¬ after one of his soldiers remarked that he was Ã¢â¬Å"tough as hickoryÃ¢â¬ . Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shortly after being commissioned a major general in the United States Army, Jackson expelled the British from Florida. Then with a motley force that included Jean LafitteÃ¢â¬â¢s pirates, he repulsed a British attack on New Orleans. Ironically, the peace treaty had been signed before the battle was fought on January 8, 1815. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s victory made him a national hero. In 1818, invades Florida and defeats Seminole Indians. In 1821, was appointed military governor of Florida while also resigned within the year. 1823, he was again elected to U.S Senate from Tennessee and resigns in 1825. Then on 1828 he was elected President of the United States. First Administration (1829- 1833) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson chose his cabinet from among his and CalhounÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters without much regard for their ability. He made little use of the cabinet, except for Secretary of State Martin Van Buren and Secretary of War John. H. Eaton. Instead, he often sought advice from personal friends, who came to be called his Ã¢â¬Å"kitchen cabinetÃ¢â¬ . JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s replacement of his incumbent officeholders with his friends and allies gave rise to the term Ã¢â¬Å"spoils systemÃ¢â¬ . Jackson did not originate this practice, however, but merely carried it out on a larger scale than previous Presidents had done. During his eight years as President, Jackson replaced about one- fifth of all federal officeholders. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first crisis of the new administration was caused by the so- called Ã¢â¬Å"petticoat warÃ¢â¬ . The wives of other cabinet members snubbed Margaret OÃ¢â¬â¢ Neal Eaton, wife of Secretary of war Eaton, because she had reputedly had an affair with Eaton while married to her fist husband and because she was a travernkeeperÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. Jackson, remembering the attacks against his wife, angrily came to Mrs. EatonÃ¢â¬â¢s defense. Cabinet members took sides over the issue, with Van Buren aligning himself with Jackson and Eaton in opposition to Calhoun and his supporters. This led to political conflict that continued until Jackson reorganized the cabinet in 1831. The protective tariff, opposed by the agricultural South, was a major issued during JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s first term. Vice President Calhoun contended that South Carolina should nullify or set aside the tariff of 1828, the Tariff of Abominations, because it violated statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights. The South Carolina nullificationists were confident that Jackson, a Southerner, would support them, but he was a moderate on the tariff issue, holding some protection necessary. He also believed nullification would lead to dissolution of the Union. In July, 1838, Congress passed a more moderate tariff bill, but it was still considered oppressive by South Carolina. In November, a state convention declared the law null and void. Jackson reacted by sending a warship and revenue cutters to Charleston, warning that Ã¢â¬Å"Disunion by armed force is treason.Ã¢â¬â¢ The crisis was resolved when Henry Clay secured passage of a compromise tariff in 1833. This bill satisfied South Carolina, which then repealed the nullification ordinance. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s early administration had been marked by intense rivalry between Vice President Calhoun and Secretary of State Van Buren, both of whom hoped to succeed him. As JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s first term ended, it became apparent that Van Buren had the upper hand. Calhoun, at odds with the President on nullification, resigned the Vice Presidency in 1832. Jackson had long disapproved of the Bank of the United States, which he regarded as an agency of monopoly and special privilege. When it was proposed to renew the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s charter in 1832, four years before its expiration date, he vetoed the measure. Henry Clay made this veto an issue in the 1832 Presidential campaign. The voters supported Jackson, however, and he defeated Clay by 219 electoral votes to 49 and a popular vote of 687, 502 to 530, 189. Van Buren was JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s running mate on the ticker of the Democratic Party. This was the first election in which all candidates were nominated by national conventions. Second Administration Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Reassured by his heavy election majority in 1832, Jackson indicated early in his second term that the Bank of the United States would no longer be a depository for public funds and ordered them deposited instead in certain state banks called pet banks by JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s enemies. This act eventually destroyed the Bank of the United States, but it also contributed to a financial panic. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1835, for the first time in the history of the nation, the national debt was paid off. The government had a surplus of $37,000,000, much of it deposited in the Ã¢â¬Å"petÃ¢â¬ banks. The following year Congress voted to divide the federal surplus among the states. The Ã¢â¬Å"petÃ¢â¬ banks faced a crisis when the government began to withdraw its funds, leading to the financial and commercial panic of 1837, which occurred after Jackson had left office. Another cause of this panic was JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Specie Circular of 1836, which ordered that payment for government land be made in gold or silver rather than in paper money. This act was intended to curb land speculation but hurt the Western banks. In foreign relations, Jackson faced few major problems. Relations with Great Britain went smoothly. A long- standing claim against France for damages to American shipping during the Napoleonic Wars caused a crisis in 1835-36 but was settled favorably. Texas won independence from Mexico in 1836, but the United States was not yet involved in its affairs, although Jackson recognized its independence on his last day of office. III. Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jackson was a few days short of 70 years of age when he left office-the oldest President until Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was more popular when he retired than when he took office as President. Although in ill health, he remained active in party affairs. An opposition party-the Whigshad been formed during his Presidency, and from that point on the two- party system remained in effect. Jackson died on June 8, 1845. References: Latner, R. B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson (University of Georgia, 1979). Remini, R.V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821(Harper Row, 1977). Remini, R.V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833- 1845(Harper Row, 1984). Sabin, Louis. Andrew Jackson: Frontier Patriot (Troll, 1985). Schlesinger, A. M. The Age of Jackson (Little, Brown, 1945).
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
POSTMODERNISMO Y MODERNIDAD INTRODUCCION El Postmodernismo describe la filosofÃ a del examinar la naturaleza del significado y del conocimiento, aunque muchos acadÃ ©micos en varios campos han debatido sobre su definiciÃ ³n precisa. Los postmodernistas cuestionan la validez de la fe en la ciencia y el racionalismo que se originÃ ³ durante el Ilustramiento y que comenzÃ ³ a estar asociada con la filosofÃ a conocida como el modernismo. TambiÃ ©n cuestionan si la antropologÃ a es, o deberÃ a ser una ciencia. Ya que todo el conocimiento estÃ ¡ necesariamente moldeado por la cultura, ellos argumentan, los antropÃ ³logos no pueden ser objetivos en su investigaciÃ ³n. En respuesta a este argumento, algunos antropÃ ³logos han comenzado simplemente a estudiar y escribir sobre los efectos de la influencia de la cultura en su propia perspectiva, y en la perspectiva del resto de las personas. A pesar de que mucho de este trabajo se realiza aÃ ºn en los departamentos de antropologÃ a, se ha convertido tambiÃ ©n en un Ã ¡rea particular de la investigaciÃ ³n conocida como estudios culturales. Algunos ven a los estudios culturales como una nueva disciplina, separada de la antropologÃ a. Otros se refieren a estos como la fase mÃ ¡s novedosa de la teorÃ a antropolÃ ³gica. Los crÃ ticos de la antropologÃ a tradicional la ven como una forma de colonialismo y de explotaciÃ ³n. Esta nociÃ ³n ha ganado terreno a raÃ z de que los antropÃ ³logos han estudiado la historia de su propia disciplina y reexaminado la relaciÃ ³n entre el desarrollo de la antropologÃ a y el colonialismo. MÃ ¡s aÃ ºn, la antropologÃ a tradicional ha estado siempre dominada por las ideas, investigaciÃ ³n y escritos de los Europeos y Americanos blancos. Esto tambiÃ ©n estÃ ¡ cambiando a medida que un mayor nÃ ºmero de personas de diversos antecedentes culturales estÃ ¡n laborando en la antropologÃ a y los estudios culturales. Los investigadores trabajando con estudios culturales tambiÃ ©n han redefinido lo que es la cultura. Tienden a ver la cultura como algo que la gente negocia continuamente entre sÃ , en vez de algo que comparten. Esta visiÃ ³n le hace sentido a una generaciÃ ³n de antropÃ ³logos que crecieron en la dÃ ©cada del 60 en los Estados Unidos y Europa. Durante este tiempo, la gente joven retaba las tradiciones culturales de sus padres y cuestionaban problemas tan importantes como el racismo, el sexismo y la violencia de las guerras modernas. TambiÃ ©n ... ...ronteras y las determinaciones de la naciÃ ³n. Hacer sentido de este fenÃ ³meno global contemporÃ ¡neo requiere el estudio de algo mÃ ¡s allÃ ¡ que el espacio limitado de la naciÃ ³n, y las teorÃ as sociales deben ser reformuladas siguiendo el paso de este nuevo mundo sin territorios. Bibliography: Appadurai, Arjun. 2000. Globalization: Public Culture: Society for Transnational Cultural Studies. Duke University Press. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Public Worlds,V.1). Minneapolis: Minessota University Press. Buitrago Ortiz, Carlos y Eva VillalÃ ³n Soler. Transnacionalismo y fragmentaciÃ ³n: Un acercamiento a trabajadores agrÃ colas migrantes mexicanos. RÃ o Piedras, Universidad de Puerto Rico. Deleuze, Gilles y FÃ ©lix Guattari.1987. A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Habermas, Jurgen. 1990. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures. MIT Press. Jameson, Frederic y Masao Miyoshi. 1998. The Cultures of Globalization. Duke University Press. Kearney, Michael. 1996. Reconceptualizing the Peasantry. Anthropology in Global Perspective. Boulder: Westview Press.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In the novel Grendel, John Gardner, through GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s character, portrays the universal struggle all humans face to find meaning in life. Grendel, just like everyone else wants to find his meaning, and purpose. Though he struggles, Grendel is ultimately trying to find himself in all of the things that he does. Concept and Explanation Textual Support #1 People in their teenage years often experience a sense of isolation, and this is what Grendel is representing. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why everyone else has companionship, while he is alone, which is showing his struggle to find out the meaning of his life. People always complain that Ã¢â¬Å"no one understands themÃ¢â¬ and in GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s case, itÃ¢â¬â¢s literal, no one understands him. #1 Ã¢â¬Å"Why canÃ¢â¬â¢t I have someone to talk to? Ã¢â¬ I said. The stars said nothing, but I pretended to ignore the rudeness. Ã¢â¬Å"The Shaper has people to talk to,Ã¢â¬ I said. I wrung my fingers. Ã¢â¬Å"Hrothgar has people to talk to. Ã¢â¬ Pg. 53 #2 This quote shows Grendel asking his mom why they live where they do. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for answers, for a reason why they live there, and why they live the way they do. He might not be looking for a meaning to life, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for a meaning for his way of life. He again, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why other things get to live in nicer ways, and in better places. Grendel is looking for a reason, as always. #2 Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËWhy are we here? Ã¢â¬â¢ I used to ask her. Ã¢â¬Å"Why do we stay in this putrid hole? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ pg. 11 #3 This quote also shows Grendel trying to find meaning to life, or rather show his negativity towards it. He is stating that where you are a child, everything is good, but then you grow up and you have to realize the truth. Grendel is still trying to figure out his truth, and what his meaning really is. #3 Ã¢â¬Å"So childhood too feels good at first, before one happens to notice the terrible sameness, age after age. Ã¢â¬ Pg. 9 #4 This quote represents GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s more nihilistic ways. He questions his own actions, and motives, showing that he is unsure. His answer to his own question is not even an answer. He says Hrothgar has not done anything to deserve it, but he also has not done anything to be exempt from him. Grendel, again, is searching for an answer why. #4 Ã¢â¬Å"How, if I know all this, you may ask, could I hound himÃ¢â¬âshatter him again and again.dive him deeper and deeper into woe? I have no answer, except perhaps this: why should I not? Has he made any move to deserve my kindness? Ã¢â¬ pg. 122 #5 When people find something theyÃ¢â¬â¢re good at, they refer to it as their Ã¢â¬Å"calling. Ã¢â¬ Well, this quote represents Grendel finding his calling. He is finally stating that he has an identity and purpose that is unique. This is the first time Grendel feels he actually has a place, and his life has meaning, which elates him. #5 Ã¢â¬Å"I was Grendel, Ruiner of Meadhalls, Wrecker of Kings! Ã¢â¬ pg. 80.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The wave theory of light, which MaxwellÃ¢â¬â¢s equations captured so well, became the dominant light theory in the 1800s (surpassing NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s corpuscular theory, which had failed in a number of situations). The first major challenge to the theory came in explaining thermal radiation, which is the type of electromagnetic radiation emitted by objects because of their temperature. Testing Thermal Radiation An apparatus can be set up to detect the radiation from an object maintained at temperature T1. (Since a warm body gives off radiation in all directions, some sort of shielding must be put in place so the radiation being examined is in a narrow beam.) Placing a dispersive medium (i.e. a prism) between the body and the detector, the wavelengths (Ã ») of the radiation disperse at an angle (Ã ¸). The detector, since itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a geometric point, measures a range delta-theta which corresponds to a range delta-Ã », though in an ideal set-up this range is relatively small. If I represents the total intensity of the fraÃ at all wavelengths, then that intensity over an interval Ã ´Ã » (between the limits of Ã » and Ã ´lamba;) is: Ã ´I R(Ã ») Ã ´Ã » R(Ã ») is the radiancy, or intensity per unit wavelength interval. In calculus notation, the Ã ´-values reduce to their limit of zero and the equation becomes: dI R(Ã ») dÃ » The experiment outlined above detects dI, and therefore R(Ã ») can be determined for any desired wavelength. Radiancy, Temperature, and Wavelength Performing the experiment for a number of different temperatures, we obtain a range of radiancy vs. wavelength curves, which yield significant results: The total intensity radiated over all wavelengths (i.e. the area under the R(Ã ») curve) increases as the temperature increases.This is certainly intuitive and, in fact, we find that if we take the integral of the intensity equation above, we obtain a value that is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. Specifically, the proportionality comes from StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s law and is determined by the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (sigma) in the form:I ÃÆ' T4The value of the wavelength Ã »max at which the radiancy reaches its maximum decreases as the temperature increases.The experiments show that the maximum wavelength is inversely proportional to the temperature. In fact, we have found that if you multiply Ã »max and the temperature, you obtain a constant, in what is known as WeinÃ¢â¬â¢s displacement law:Ã »max T 2.898 x 10-3 mK Blackbody Radiation The above description involved a bit of cheating. Light is reflected off objects, so the experiment described runs into the problem of what is actually being tested. To simplify the situation, scientists looked at a blackbody, which is to say an object that does not reflect any light. Consider a metal box with a small hole in it. If light hits the hole, it will enter the box, and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little chance of it bouncing back out. Therefore, in this case, the hole, not the box itself, is the blackbody. The radiation detected outside the hole will be a sample of the radiation inside the box, so some analysis is required to understand whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening inside the box. The box is filled with electromagnetic standing waves. If the walls are metal, the radiation bounces around inside the box with the electric field stopping at each wall, creating a node at each wall.The number of standing waves with wavelengths between Ã » and dÃ » isN(Ã ») dÃ » (8Ãâ¬ V / Ã »4) dÃ »where V is the volume of the box. This can be proven by regular analysis of standing waves and expanding it to three dimensions.Each individual wave contributes an energy kT to the radiation in the box. From classical thermodynamics, we know that the radiation in the box is in thermal equilibrium with the walls at temperature T. Radiation is absorbed and quickly reemitted by the walls, which creates oscillations in the frequency of the radiation. The mean thermal kinetic energy of an oscillating atom is 0.5kT. Since these are simple harmonic oscillators, the mean kinetic energy is equal to the mean potential energy, so the total energy is kT.The radiance is related to the energy d ensity (energy per unit volume) u(Ã ») in the relationshipR(Ã ») (c / 4) u(Ã »)This is obtained by determining the amount of radiation passing through an element of surface area within the cavity. Failure of Classical Physics u(Ã ») (8Ãâ¬ / Ã »4) kTR(Ã ») (8Ãâ¬ / Ã »4) kT (c / 4) (known as the Rayleigh-Jeans formula) The data (the other three curves in the graph) actually show a maximum radiancy, and below the lambdamax at this point, the radiancy falls off, approaching 0 as lambda approaches 0. This failure is called the ultraviolet catastrophe, and by 1900 it had created serious problems for classical physics because it called into question the basic concepts of thermodynamics and electromagnetics that were involved in reaching that equation. (At longer wavelengths, the Rayleigh-Jeans formula is closer to the observed data.) PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Max Planck Planck suggested that an atom can absorb or reemit energy only in discrete bundles (quanta). If the energy of these quanta are proportional to the radiation frequency, then at large frequencies the energy would similarly become large. Since no standing wave could have an energy greater than kT, this put an effective cap on the high-frequency radiancy, thus solving the ultraviolet catastrophe. Each oscillator could emit or absorb energy only in quantities that are integer multiples of the quanta of energy (epsilon): E n Ã µ, where the number of quanta, n 1, 2, 3, . . . Ã ½ Ã µ h Ã ½ h (c / 4)(8Ãâ¬ / Ã »4)((hc / Ã »)(1 / (ehc/Ã » kT Ã¢â¬â 1))) kT e Rayleigh-Jeans formula Consequences quantum physics photoelectric effect , by introducing his photon theory. While Planck introduced the idea of quanta to fix problems in one specific experiment, Einstein went further to define it as a fundamental property of the electromagnetic field. Planck, and most physicists, were slow to accept this interpretation until there was overwhelming evidence to do so.